Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
NOTE C – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the consolidated accounts of Holdings and its wholly owned subsidiaries, BioPharma, and Nanotechnologies, the operational subsidiaries of Holdings. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and reflect the operations of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
These interim unaudited financial statements do not include all the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for annual financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016, which are included in the Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 31, 2017. In the opinion of management, the interim unaudited financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to fairly state the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. The year-end condensed consolidated balance sheet data presented for comparative purposes was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP.
Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future interim periods or for the year ending December 31, 2017. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Certain accounting principles require subjective and complex judgments to be used in the preparation of financial statements. Accordingly, a different financial presentation could result depending on the judgments, estimates, or assumptions that are used. Such estimates and assumptions include, but are not specifically limited to, those required in the assessment of the impairment of intangible assets, all acquired assets and liabilities, the valuation of Level 3 financial instruments and determination of stock-based compensation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with original maturity of three months or less to be cash and cash equivalents to the extent the funds are not being held for investment purposes.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash. Cash balances are maintained principally at two major U.S. financial institutions and are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to regulatory limits. At all times throughout the three months ended March 31, 2017, the Company’s cash balances exceeded the FDIC insurance limit. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives of the Company equipment ranges from three to ten years. Capitalized costs associated with leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the useful life of the asset or the remaining life of the lease.
Income Taxes
Deferred taxes are provided on a liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates.
The Company adopted the provisions of ASC 740-10 and has analyzed its filing positions in jurisdictions where it may be obligated to file returns. The Company believes that its income tax filing position and deductions will be sustained on an audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material change to its financial position. Therefore, no reserves for uncertain income tax positions have been recorded. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. The Company had no accrual for interest or penalties as of March 31, 2017.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees in conformity with the provisions of ASC Topic 718, “Stock Based Compensation”. Stock-based compensation to employees consist of stock options grants and restricted shares that are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair values at the date of grant.
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to non-employees in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 505, subtopic 50, “Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees” based upon the fair-value of the underlying instrument. The equity instruments, consisting of stock options granted to consultants, are valued using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vest and is recognized as an expense over the period which services are received.
The Company calculates the fair value of option grants utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model, and estimates the fair value of the restricted stock based upon the estimated fair value of the common stock. The amount of stock-based compensation recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The resulting stock-based compensation expense for both employee and non-employee awards is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award.
Fair Value Measurements
ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurements” defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in GAAP and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, which gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under ASC 820 are described below:
Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for assets or liabilities. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to Level 1 inputs.
Level 2 - Directly or indirectly observable inputs as of the reporting date through correlation with market data, including quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets and quoted prices in markets that are not active. Level 2 also includes assets and liabilities that are valued using models or other pricing methodologies that do not require significant judgment since the input assumptions used in the models, such as interest rates and volatility factors, are corroborated by readily observable data from actively quoted markets for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and reflect the use of significant management judgment. These values are generally determined using pricing models for which the assumptions utilize management’s estimates of market participant assumptions.
In determining fair value, the Company utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible as well as considers counterparty credit risk in its assessment of fair value.
The carrying amounts of cash, restricted cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Basic Net Loss per Common Share
Basic earnings per common share is computed as net loss available for common shareholders divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share is the same as basic earnings per common share because the Company incurred a net loss during each period presented, and the potentially dilutive securities from the assumed exercise of all outstanding stock options, preferred stock and warrants would have an antidilutive effect. The following schedule details the number of shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options, warrants and conversion of preferred stock, which have been excluded from the diluted loss per share calculation for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:
Stock options
Preferred Stock
Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue from grants and contracts when the specified performance milestones are achieved. These milestones are analyzed and approved on a monthly basis.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations as they are incurred. Legal fees and other direct costs incurred in obtaining and protecting patents are also expensed as incurred, due to the uncertainty with respect to future cash flows resulting from the patents and our included as part of general and administrative expenses.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-04 “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment” The Board is issuing the amendments in this update to simplify the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead an entity should perform its goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. We are required to apply the amendments in this for its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. We have evaluated this standard and believe it will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operation.
In August 2016, the (FASB) issued 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments ("ASU 2016-15"), which amended the existing accounting standards for the statement of cash flows. The amendments provide guidance on eight classification issues related to the statement of cash flows. The Company is required to adopt the guidance in the first quarter of 2018 and early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented. For issues that are impracticable to apply retrospectively, the amendments may be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The Company does not believe the adoption will have a material impact on the Company's consolidated statements of cash flows.
In March and April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Consideration (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net)” and ASU No. 2016-10 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing”,  respectively which clarifies the guidance on reporting revenue as a principal versus agent, identifying performance obligations and accounting for intellectual property licenses. In addition, in May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606):  Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients”,  which amends certain narrow aspects of Topic 606. We will adopt this standard once we begin to generate revenue from operations. We do not believe these standards will have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operation.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 represents a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Partnership expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services. This ASU sets forth a new five-step revenue recognition model which replaces the prior revenue recognition guidance in its entirety and is intended to eliminate numerous industry-specific pieces of revenue recognition guidance that have historically existed. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date”, which defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year, but permits companies to adopt one year earlier if they choose (i.e., the original effective date). As such, this ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 for public companies and 2018 for private companies. Companies may use either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective approach to adopt this ASU. We will adopt this standard once we begin to generate revenue from operations and successful adoption of ASU 2014-09 is contingent upon the commencement of the marketing of our products.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09 “Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.” This ASU simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share–based payment award transactions. The ASU is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early application is permitted. Pursuant to the adoption requirements for forfeitures, we now account for forfeitures as they occur rather than using an estimated forfeiture rate. The adoption of this standard effective January 1, 2017 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operation.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases”. The new standard will require most leases to be recognized on the balance sheet which will increase reported assets and liabilities. Lessor accounting remains substantially similar to current guidance. The new standard is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, which for us is the first quarter of 2019 and mandates a modified retrospective transition method. We do not intend to early adopt and are currently assessing the impact of this update, but preliminarily believe that its adoption will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is assessed for impairment at least annually on a reporting unit basis, or more frequently when events and circumstances occur indicating that the recorded goodwill may be impaired. In accordance with the authoritative accounting guidance we have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we determine this is the case, we are required to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test to identify potential goodwill impairment and measure the amount of goodwill impairment loss to be recognized, if any. If we determine that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than its carrying amounts, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required.
As defined in the authoritative guidance, a reporting unit is an operating segment, or one level below an operating segment. Historically, we conducted our business in a single operating segment and reporting unit. In the quarter ended March 31, 2017, we assessed goodwill impairment by performing a qualitative test for our reporting unit. During our qualitative review, we considered the Company’s cash position and our ability to obtain additional financing in the near term to meet our operational and strategic goals and substantiate the value of our business. Based on the results of our assessment, it was determined that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the reporting units are greater than their carrying amounts. There was no impairment of goodwill for the quarter ended March 31, 2017.
We review other intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable or that the useful lives of these assets are no longer appropriate. The authoritative accounting guidance allows a qualitative approach for testing indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment, similar to the impairment testing guidance for goodwill. It allows the option to first assess qualitative factors (events and circumstances) that could have affected the significant inputs used in determining the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset. The qualitative factors assist in determining whether it is more-likely-than-not (i.e. > 50% chance) that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. An organization may choose to bypass the qualitative assessment for any indefinite-lived intangible asset in any period and proceed directly to calculating its fair value. Our indefinite-lived intangible assets are IPR&D intangible assets. In all other instances we used the qualitative test and concluded that it was more-likely-than-not that all other indefinite-lived assets were not impaired and therefore, there were no impairments in quarter ended March 31, 2017. 
Beneficial Conversion Feature of Convertible Preferred Stock
The Company accounts for the beneficial conversion feature on its convertible preferred stock in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. The Beneficial Conversion Feature (“BCF”) of convertible preferred stock is normally characterized as the convertible portion or feature that provides a rate of conversion that is below market value or in-the-money when issued. We record a BCF related to the issuance of convertible preferred stock when issued. Beneficial conversion features that are contingent upon the occurrence of a future event are recorded when the contingency is resolved.
To determine the effective conversion price, we first allocate the proceeds received to the convertible preferred stock and then use those allocated proceeds to determine the effective conversion price. If the convertible instrument is issued in a basket transaction (i.e., issued along with other freestanding financial instruments), the proceeds should first be allocated to the various instruments in the basket. Any amounts paid to the investor when the transaction is consummated (e.g., origination fees, due diligence costs) represent a reduction in the proceeds received by the issuer. The intrinsic value of the conversion option should be measured using the effective conversion price for the convertible preferred stock on the proceeds allocated to that instrument. The effective conversion price represents proceeds allocable to the convertible preferred stock divided by the number of shares into which it is convertible. The effective conversion price is then compared to the per share fair value of the underlying shares on the commitment date.
The accounting for a BCF requires that the BCF be recognized by allocating the intrinsic value of the conversion option to additional paid-in capital, resulting in a discount on the convertible preferred stock. This discount should be accreted from the date on which the BCF is first recognized through the earliest conversion date for instruments that do not have a stated redemption date. The intrinsic value of the BCF is recognized as a deemed dividend on convertible preferred stock over a period specified in the guidance.