Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE C - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the consolidated accounts of Holdings and its wholly owned subsidiaries, BioPharma Inc., and Nanotechnologies, the operational subsidiaries of Holdings. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and reflect the operations of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Certain accounting principles require subjective and complex judgments to be used in the preparation of financial statements. Accordingly, a different financial presentation could result depending on the judgments, estimates, or assumptions that are used. Such estimates and assumptions include, but are not specifically limited to, those required in the assessment of the impairment of intangible assets and the valuation of Level 3 fair value measurement of financial instruments and determination of stock-based compensation, contingent consideration and all acquired assets and liabilities.
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents to the extent the funds are not being held for investment purposes. Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, bank demand deposits and overnight sweep accounts used in the Company’s cash management program.
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash. Cash balances are maintained principally at two major U.S. financial institutions and are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to regulatory limits. At all times throughout the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company’s cash balances exceeded the FDIC insurance limit. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives of the Company equipment ranges from three to ten years. Capitalized costs associated with leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the useful life of the asset or the remaining life of the lease.
Deferred taxes are provided on a liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates.
The Company adopted the provisions of Accounting Standard Codification 740-10 and has analyzed its filing positions in 2017 and 2016 in jurisdictions where it may be obligated to file returns. The Company believes that its income tax filing position and deductions will be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material change to its financial position. Therefore, no reserves for uncertain income tax positions have been recorded. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. The Company had no accrual for interest or penalties as of December 31, 2017.
Since the Company incurred net operating losses in every tax year since inception, the 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 income tax returns are subject to examination and adjustments by the IRS for at least three years following the year in which the tax attributes are utilized.
Stock-based compensation to employees consist of stock option grants and restricted shares that are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations based on their fair values at the date of grant.
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to non-employees in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 505, subtopic 50, Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees based upon the fair-value of the underlying instrument. The equity instruments, consisting of stock options granted to consultants, are valued using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vest and is recognized as an expense over the period which services are received. The Company calculates the fair value of option grants utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model, and estimates the fair value of restricted stock based upon the estimated fair value or the common stock. The amount of stock based compensation recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. The authoritative guidance requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time stock options are granted and warrants are issued and revised or adjustments made as they occur. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. The term “forfeitures” is distinct from “cancellations” or “expirations” and represents only the unvested portion of the surrendered stock option or warrant.
The resulting stock-based compensation expense for both employee and non-employee awards is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award.
ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurements” defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in GAAP and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, which gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under ASC 820 are described below:
In determining fair value, the Company utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible as well as considers counterparty credit risk in its assessment of fair value.
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts payable, note payable, lease liability and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Basic and diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share is the same as basic earnings per common share because, as the Company incurred a net loss during each period presented, the potentially dilutive securities from the assumed exercise of all outstanding stock options and warrants and conversion of preferred stock, would have an anti-dilutive effect. The following schedule details the number of shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options, warrants and conversion of preferred stock, which have been excluded from the diluted loss per share calculation as the inclusion would be anti-dilutive for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015:
The Company recognizes revenue from research grants on a proportional performance basis as the services are performed by the Company. The Company currently has a research grant with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.
Research and development costs are charged to operations as they are incurred. Legal fees and other direct costs incurred in obtaining and protecting patents are also expensed as incurred, due to the uncertainty with respect to future cash flows resulting from the patents and our included as part of general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of operations.
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 represents a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Partnership expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services. This ASU sets forth a new five-step revenue recognition model which replaces the prior revenue recognition guidance in its entirety and is intended to eliminate numerous industry-specific pieces of revenue recognition guidance that have historically existed. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date”, which defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year, but permits companies to adopt one year earlier if they choose (i.e., the original effective date). As such, this ASU is effective for annual reporting and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, which for us is the first quarter of 2018. Companies may use either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective approach to adopt this ASU. The Company will adopt the guidance in ASU 2014-09 as of January 1, 2018 and apply the modified retrospective approach. This standard will not have an impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operation.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases”. The new standard will require most leases to be recognized on the balance sheet which will increase reported assets and liabilities. Lessor accounting remains substantially similar to current guidance. The new standard is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, which for us is the first quarter of 2019 and mandates a modified retrospective transition method. We do not intend to early adopt and are currently assessing the impact of this update, but preliminarily believe that its adoption will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments”, which amended the existing accounting standards for the statement of cash flows. The amendments provide guidance on eight classification issues related to the statement of cash flows. The Company is required to adopt the guidance in the first quarter of 2018. The amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented. For issues that are impracticable to apply retrospectively, the amendments may be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The Company does not believe the adoption will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04 “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment” ASU 2017-04 simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead an entity should perform its goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. We are required to apply the amendments for the annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. We have evaluated this standard and believe it will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operation.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01 “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business”. The Board is issuing the amendments in this update to clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, and consolidation. We are required to apply the amendments in this update to annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company will adopt the new guidance on January 1, 2018 and will apply it to all applicable transactions after the adoption date.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09 “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting”, which provides clarity and reduces both diversity in practice and cost and complexity when applying guidance in Topic 718. This amendment provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The amendments are effective for all entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company does not believe the adoption will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of cash flows.
In November 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18 “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash” which requires that restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be included as components of total cash and cash equivalents as presented on the statement of cash flows. This pronouncement goes into effect for periods beginning after December 15, 2017, for public entities and one year later for all other entities. The Company does not believe the adoption will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of cash flows.
Goodwill is assessed for impairment at least annually on a reporting unit basis, or more frequently when events and circumstances occur indicating that the recorded goodwill may be impaired. In accordance with the authoritative accounting guidance we have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we determine this is the case, we are required to perform further analysis to identify potential goodwill impairment and measure the amount of goodwill impairment loss to be recognized, if any. If we determine that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than its carrying amounts, further analysis is not required.
As defined in the authoritative guidance, a reporting unit is an operating segment, or one level below an operating segment. Historically, we conducted our business in a single operating segment and reporting unit. In the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, we assessed goodwill impairment by performing a qualitative test for our reporting unit. During our qualitative reviews, we considered the Company’s cash position and our ability to obtain additional financing in the near term to meet our operational and strategic goals and substantiate the value of our business. Based on the results of our assessments, it was determined that it is more-likely- than-not that the fair value of the reporting units are greater than their carrying amounts. There was no impairment of goodwill for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
We review other intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable or that the useful lives of these assets are no longer appropriate. The authoritative accounting guidance allows a qualitative approach for testing indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment, similar to the impairment testing guidance for goodwill. It allows the option to first assess qualitative factors (events and circumstances) that could have affected the significant inputs used in determining the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset. The qualitative factors assist in determining whether it is more-likely-than-not (i.e. > 50% chance) that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. An organization may choose to bypass the qualitative assessment for any indefinite-lived intangible asset in any period and proceed directly to calculating its fair value. Our indefinite-lived intangible assets are IPR&D intangible assets. In all other instances, we used the qualitative test and concluded that it was more-likely-than-not that all other indefinite-lived assets were not impaired and therefore, there were no impairments in period ended December 31, 2017.
Pursuant to the Certificate of Designations, the Series A Preferred Shares earn dividends at a rate of 8.0% once per year on the anniversary of the Initial Closing, payable to the holders of such Series A Preferred Shares in shares of common stock upon conversion. Dividends do not require declaration by the Board of Directors. Dividends are accrued annually as of the date the dividend is earned in an amount equal to the contractual rate of 8% of the stated value.
The Company records rent on a straight line basis. Differences between monthly rent expenses and rent payments are known as deferred rents. Deferred rents are recorded in either an asset account (e.g., other current or noncurrent assets) when the cumulative difference between rent expenses and rent payments as of a balance sheet date is negative or a liability account (e.g., other current or noncurrent liabilities) when the cumulative difference is positive. Due to our escalating rents, the Company is currently recording a deferred rent liability.
The Company accounts for acquisitions using the acquisition method of accounting which requires the recognition of tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their estimated fair values as of the business combination date. The Company allocates any excess purchase price over the estimated fair value assigned to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed to goodwill. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred in general and administrative expenses. Results of operations and cash flows of acquired companies are included in the Company’s operating results from the date of acquisition.
The Company’s intangible assets are comprised of acquired in-process research and development, or IPR&D. The fair value of IPR&D acquired through a business combination is capitalized as an indefinite-lived intangible asset until the completion or abandonment of the related research and development activities. IPR&D is tested for impairment annually or when events or circumstances indicate that the fair value may be below the carrying value of the asset. We perform our IPR&D Impairment testing in the fourth quarter. As of December 31, 2017 no impairment of IPR&D has been identified. If and when research and development is complete, the associated assets would then be amortized over their estimated useful lives.
The Company accounts for the beneficial conversion feature on its convertible preferred stock in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. The Beneficial Conversion Feature (“BCF”) of convertible preferred stock is normally characterized as the convertible portion or feature that provides a rate of conversion that is below market value or in-the-money when issued. We record a BCF related to the issuance of convertible preferred stock when issued. Beneficial conversion features that are contingent upon the occurrence of a future event are recorded when the contingency is resolved.
To determine the effective conversion price, we first allocate the proceeds received to the convertible preferred stock and then use those allocated proceeds to determine the effective conversion price. If the convertible instrument is issued in a basket transaction (i.e., issued along with other freestanding financial instruments), the proceeds should first be allocated to the various instruments in the basket. Any amounts paid to the investor when the transaction is consummated (e.g., origination fees, due diligence costs) represent a reduction in the proceeds received by the issuer. The intrinsic value of the conversion option should be measured using the effective conversion price for the convertible preferred stock on the proceeds allocated to that instrument. The effective conversion price represents proceeds allocable to the convertible preferred stock divided by the number of shares into which it is convertible. The effective conversion price is then compared to the per share fair value of the underlying shares on the commitment date.
The accounting for a BCF requires that the BCF be recognized by allocating the intrinsic value of the conversion option to additional paid-in capital, resulting in a discount on the convertible preferred stock. This discount should be accreted from the date on which the BCF is first recognized through the earliest conversion date for instruments that do not have a stated redemption date. The intrinsic value of the BCF is recognized as a deemed dividend on convertible preferred stock over a period specified in the guidance.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef