Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes

Note 11 – Income Taxes


The Company utilizes the liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is established against deferred tax assets when, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as income tax expense. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company does not believe any material uncertain tax positions were present. Accordingly, interest and penalties have not been accrued due to an uncertain tax position.



The components of the income tax provision are as follows:


    Year Ended December 31,  
    2022     2021  
Current expense (benefit):                
Federal   $ -     $ -  
State     -       -  
Foreign     -       -  
Total current expense (benefit):   $ -     $ -  
Deferred expense (benefit):                
Federal   $   -     $   -  
State     -       -  
Foreign     -       -  
Total deferred expense (benefit):   $ -     $ -  
Total income tax expense (benefit):   $ -     $ -  


Deferred income taxes reflect the net effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. A reconciliation of the statutory U.S. federal rate to the Company’s effective tax rate is as follows:


    Year Ended December 31,  
    2022     2021  
Income at U.S. Statutory Rate     21.00 %     21.00 %
State Taxes, net of Federal benefit     7.65 %     1.97 %
Permanent Differences     (1.25 )%     (0.82 )%
Tax Credits     2.52 %     2.16 %
Valuation Allowance     (29.92 )%     (25.21 )%
Discrete items     0.00 %     0.91 %
 Effective income tax rate     0.00 %     0.00 %


The Company has no current income taxes payable other than certain state minimum taxes which are included in general and administrative expenses.


Significant components of the Company’s deferred tax assets (liabilities) for 2022 and 2021 consist of the following:


    Year Ended December 31,  
    2022     2021  
Share-based Compensation   $ 4,512     $ 3,575  
Depreciation and Amortization     (18 )     166  
Accrued Liability     481       377  
Net Operating Loss Carry-forwards     21,755       24,076  
R&D Credit Carryforwards     3,773       3,207  
R&D Section 174 Costs     4,268       -  


      (1 )
IPR&D     (851 )     (848 )
ROU Asset     (1,027 )     (1,186 )
ROU Liability     1,155       1,315  
Total Deferred tax assets   $ 34,047     $ 30,681  
Valuation allowance     (34,388 )     (31,023 )
Net deferred tax asset (liability)   $ (341 )   $ (341 )


On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act was signed into law making several changes to the Internal Revenue Code. The changes include but are not limited to: increasing the limitation on the amount of deductible interest expense, allowing companies to carryback certain net operating losses, and increasing the amount of net operating loss carryforwards that corporations can use to offset taxable income. The tax law changes in the Act did not have a material impact on the Company’s income tax provision.



In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, the Company considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of taxable income during the periods in which the temporary differences representing net future deductible amounts become deductible, and is impacted by the Company’s ability to carryforward losses to years in which the Company has taxable income. Due to the Company’s history of losses and lack of other positive evidence to support taxable income, the Company has recorded a valuation allowance against those deferred tax assets that are not expected to be realized. The valuation allowances were $34.4, $31.0 and $25.2 as of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing increases of $3.4 and $5.8 for the years ending December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.


As of December 31, 2021, the Company had Federal net operating loss carryforwards of $38.1 which will begin to expire in 2032. In addition, the Company has federal net operating loss carryforwards of $64.5 which have an indefinite carryforward period. The Company also had federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of $3.8. The federal net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards will expire at various dates beginning in 2032, if not utilized. The difference between the statutory tax rate and the effective tax rate is primarily attributable to the valuation allowance offsetting deferred tax assets.


Utilization of the net operating losses and general business tax credits carryforwards may be subject to a substantial limitation under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 due to changes in ownership of the Company that have occurred previously or that could occur in the future. These ownership changes may limit the amount of net operating losses and general business tax credits carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income and tax, respectively. In general, an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, results from transactions increasing the ownership of certain stockholders or public groups in the stock of a corporation by more than 50 percentage points over a three-year period. The Company has not completed a study to determine whether it had undergone an ownership change since the Company’s inception.


Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, research and development costs are no longer fully deductible and are required to be capitalized and amortized for U.S. tax purposes effective January 1, 2022. The mandatory capitalization requirement increases our deferred tax assets.


Sale of net operating losses (NOLs) & tax credits


The Company recognized $3,491 and $1,328 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, in connection with the sale of certain State of New Jersey Net Operating Losses (“NOL”) and Research and Development (“R&D”) tax credits to a third party under the New Jersey Technology Business Tax Certificate Transfer Program. In addition, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, signed into law on December 22, 2017 imposes significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest and limits NOL deductions to 80% of net taxable income for losses arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. This NOL limitation was suspended for years 2018 through 2020 as a result of the CARES Act.