Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2014
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
NOTE C - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the consolidated accounts of Matinas BioPharma Holdings Inc. (Holdings) and its wholly owned subsidiary, Matinas BioPharma Inc. Matinas BioPharma Inc. is the operational subsidiary of Holdings. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and reflect the operations of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
These interim unaudited financial statements do not include all the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for annual financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2013, which are included in the Company’s Special Financial Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on April 11, 2014. In the opinion of management, the interim unaudited financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to fairly state the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. The year-end consolidated balance sheet data presented for comparative purposes was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP.
Operating results for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future interim periods or for the year ending December 31, 2014. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of financial statement presentation the Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents to the extent the funds are not being held for investment purposes.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. Cash balances are maintained principally at one major U.S. financial institution and are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to regulatory limits. At various times throughout the period ended September 30, 2014, the Company’s cash balances exceeded the FDIC insurance limit. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives of the Company property, plant, and equipment range from three to ten years. Capitalized costs associated with leasehold improvements are depreciated over the lesser of the useful life of the asset or the remaining life of the lease.
Income Taxes
Deferred taxes are provided on a liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates.
The Company adopted the provisions of ASC 740-10 and has analyzed its filing positions in 2013 and 2012 in jurisdictions where it may be obligated to file returns. The Company believes that its income tax filing position and deductions will be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material change to its financial position. Therefore, no reserves for uncertain income tax positions have been recorded. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. The Company had no accrual for interest or penalties as of September 30, 2014. In addition, future changes in unrecognized tax benefits will have no impact on the effective tax rate due to the existence of the valuation.
Since the Company incurred net operating losses in every tax year since inception, 2012 and 2013 income tax returns are subject to examination and adjustments by the IRS for at least three years following the year in which the tax attributes are utilized.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees in conformity with the provisions of ASC Topic 718, “Stock Based Compensation”. Stock-based compensation to employees consist of stock options grants and restricted shares that are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair values at the date of grant.
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to non-employees in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 505, subtopic 50, Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees based upon the fair-value of the underlying instrument. The equity instruments, consisting of stock options granted to consultants, are valued using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vest and is recognized as an expense over the period which services are received.
The Company calculates the fair value of option grants utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model, and estimates the fair value of the restricted stock based upon the estimated fair value or the common stock. The amount of stock-based compensation recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. The authoritative guidance requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time stock options are granted and warrants are issued and revised. If necessary in subsequent periods, an adjustment will be booked if actual forfeitures differ from those estimated. The term “forfeitures” is distinct from “cancellations” or “expirations” and represents only the unvested portion of the surrendered stock option or warrant. The Company estimates forfeiture rates for all unvested awards when calculating the expense for the period. In estimating the forfeiture rate, the Company monitors both stock option and warrant exercises as well as employee and non-employee termination patterns.
The resulting stock-based compensation expense for both employee and non-employee awards is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award.
Fair Value Measurements
ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurements” defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in GAAP and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, which gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under ASC 820 are described below:
Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for assets or liabilities. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to Level 1 inputs.
Level 2 - Directly or indirectly observable inputs as of the reporting date through correlation with market data, including quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets and quoted prices in markets that are not active. Level 2 also includes assets and liabilities that are valued using models or other pricing methodologies that do not require significant judgment since the input assumptions used in the models, such as interest rates and volatility factors, are corroborated by readily observable data from actively quoted markets for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and reflect the use of significant management judgment. These values are generally determined using pricing models for which the assumptions utilize management’s estimates of market participant assumptions.
In determining fair value, the Company utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible as well as considers counterparty credit risk in its assessment of fair value.
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Basic Net Loss per Common Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed as net loss divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net loss per common share is the same as basic net loss per common share because the Company incurred a net loss during each period presented, and the potentially dilutive securities from the assumed exercise of all outstanding stock options, warrants would have an antidilutive effect. As of September 30, 2014 and 2013 the number of shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options, warrants, and shares held in escrow was 20,665,000 and 17,085,000, respectively.
Revenue Recognition
The Company will develop an appropriate revenue recognition policy when planned anticipated future commercial operations commence.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations as they are incurred. Legal fees and other direct costs incurred in obtaining and protecting patents are also expensed as incurred, due to the uncertainty with respect to future cash flows resulting from the patents and our included as part of General and Administrative expenses.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-10, Development Stage Entities (Topic 915): Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting Requirements. ASU 2014-10 eliminates the definition of a development stage entity in U.S accounting standards and removes all disclosure requirements, including the elimination of inception-to-date information on the statements of operations, cash flows and stockholders’ equity related to the financial reporting distinction between development stage enterprises and other reporting entities. The amendments in ASU 2014-10 will be effective prospectively for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and interim periods within those annual periods, however, early adoption is permitted. The Company evaluated and adopted ASU 2014-10 for the Company’s reporting period ended June 30, 2014 and therefore eliminated all incremental disclosures related to the Company’s inception-to-date period.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, “Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern.” This ASU describes how an entity should assess its ability to meet obligations and sets rules for how this information should be disclosed in the financial statements.  The standard provides accounting guidance that will be used along with existing auditing standards. The ASU is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early application is permitted. The Corporation is in the process of evaluating the impact of this standard but does not expect this standard to have a material impact on the Corporation’s consolidated financial position or results of operation.